12 rules to reduce the risk of cancer
12 rules to reduce the risk of cancer
Experts of the World Health Organization (WHO) for cancer research presented 12 rules that should be followed to reduce the risk of cancer to a minimum.
1. Do not smoke or use tobacco in any form.
Tobacco is a major cause of cancer. Smoking kills up to half of the long-term users, and each year causes about 6 million deaths.
2. Clean your home from smoke and encourage no smoking policy in the workplace.
Exposure to secondhand smoke at work and at home is associated with many diseases, including cancer. The home is the most common place of exposure to secondhand smoke. Increased protection against passive smoking is desirable and feasible by the smokers and non-smokers banning smoking in the home and in the car.
3. Maintain a healthy weight.
There is strong evidence that the risk of developing cancer can be prevented by adopting healthy eating habits. People who lead a healthy lifestyle have a 18% lower risk of developing cancer. It is necessary to avoid foods that promote weight gain, such as sugary drinks and fast food, and be moderately active for at least 30 minutes a day. It is recommended to eat mostly foods of plant origin, limit intake of red meat, avoid processed meats and limit the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
4. Be physically active in your daily live and limit the time you spend sitting.
Exercise boosts the immune system thus effectively eliminates tumor cells in the development. First of all this applies to the intestine cervix, colon, breast and lung carcinoma. Exercise is medicine for stress, and stress is increasingly the focus of doctors as an essential factor in the development of the diseases. Exercise reduces the level of "stress hormones" - cortisol, and increases the level of endorphins - hormones deserving of happiness and natural energy. This is a powerful antidepressant that promotes mental health.
Thickness is by connected with numerous malignant diseases, and studies in the United States suggests that obesity is associated with mortality related to cancer, 14% in men and 20% in women.
5. Healthy Eating - it involves consuming whole grains, legumes, vegetables and fruits. Limit your intake of high-calorie foods rich in sugar and fats, and processed meat and foods with a lot of salt.
6. If you drink alcohol, limit its intake. However, for prevention, best would be not to drink alcohol at all.
A British study showed that one out of ten cases of cancer in men and one out of 33 cases in women are caused by alcohol consumption in the past or present. Over 18 percent of cancer cases in men and about 4 percent of the cases in women are associated with excessive drinking of alcohol.
Previous research has shown a link between alcohol consumption and cancer of the esophagus, liver, bowel and breast cancer in women. When the alcohol dissolves in the body, the body produces a chemical that can damage DNA, increasing the risk of developing cancer.
7. Avoid excessive sun exposure, especially in children. Use protective factors and do not use tanning beds.
UVB radiation is necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D, however, UVB and UVA radiation causes damage to the skin, which in the long run, leads to skin cancer.
UVB radiation of short wavelengths (290-320 nm) is high energy radiation, it causes severe phototoxicity, but does not penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin. It is responsible for the skin pigmentation, with stronger exposure can cause redness of the skin and sun burns. Prolonged exposure causes premature aging of the skin and can cause skin cancer.
UVA radiation (wavelength 320-400 nm) penetrates into the deeper layers of the skin and although low energy, can cause damage accumulation, which makes it possible to develop skin cancer later in life.
Excessive exposure to the sun or regular visits to the tanning bed is usually aimed towards a tan, no long or inadequate exposure to sunlight has been proven to have harmful effects.
8. Protect yourself of potentially carcinogenic substances in accordance with the rules on safety at work.
There are thousands of artificial or natural substances in the environment, including the workplace, some of which have the potential to cause cancer. Many of these substances are chemicals. Governments need to define policies and establish regulations and monitor compliance with those regulations; manufacturers and industry need to adapt their actions in accordance with the regulations, employers must ensure that measures to protect their workers (eg. protective equipment).
9. Check if you are exposed to excessive radiation in your house and take measures to reduce it.
Radon is a natural radioactive gas that can cause radiation in your home. After smoking it is the second leading cause of lung cancer. The World Health Organization attaches a 3-14 percent risk of developing lung cancer.
When measured by its elevated concentration, recommended are measures can greatly reduce its presence. One method is regularly venting space, morning, afternoon and evening for a few minutes. If that is not enough you need to install a quality ventilation system. In addition it would be desirable that investors before construction make the necessary measurements to check if its concentration is too high.
10. Breast-feeding reduces the risk of cancer in women. Also, hormone replacement therapy increases the risk of certain cancers, and it should be limited.
Studies show that breastfeeding is one of the protective factors that reduce the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. A lot of research conducted in 2002 includes 47 different studies in 30 countries. There is evidence that the risk of getting breast cancer is reduced by 4.3% per year of breastfeeding. Also, with each childbirth and breast-feeding again, the risk is reduced by a further 7%. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing breast cancer decreased among women who gave birth to their first child before the age of 25 and had four or more children.
Giving birth to the first child after the age of 30 was considered to be one of the factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Recent research shows that the risk of suffering from the disease reduces even for mothers who have given birth for the first time after 30 years as long she is breastfeeding. It has been demonstrated that women who had their first birth before 25 years, have a reduced risk for breast cancer in an estrogen receptor-positive, but not for obtaining a reduced risk of breast cancer in estrogen receptor negative.
11. Make sure your children are vaccinated against hepatitis B (for infants) and HPV (for girls).
Nearly one-fifth of all cancers worldwide are caused by infectious agents, including viruses and bacteria. Among the most important infections associated with cancers of the human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause cervical cancer. Vaccination is very effective in the prevention of HPV infections that cause in most cases cervical cancer.
12. Participate in organized programs and examinations for cancer prevention, including checks for colorectal cancer, breast cancer and cervical cancer.
Smoking is the main cause of cancer in the European Union
Cancer is the leading cause of death in the European Union. It is assumed that by 2050 one in three people suffer from some form of cancer. Every day from some malignant disease nearly 40 people, or 14,000 a year are killed in Croatia.
Cancer is a disease in which the body cells grow in an uncontrolled manner, forming a tumor that can spread to different parts of the body.
All cancers are caused by abnormalities (mutations) in the DNA of cells in the body. The body has a defense against some mutations, or external substances - such as chemicals in tobacco smoke, as well as radiation and some infections - can defeat such a defense.
The main cause of cancer in the European Union is smoking. Overweight and obesity, a poor nutrition, the lack of physical activity, and alcohol consumption contribute to an unhealthy lifestyle as the second leading cause of cancer. Exposure to the sun and other sources of radiation are also important, as well as exposure to carcinogens in the workplace and certain infections. For each of these factors, as more people are exposed to them (the duration, frequency and level of exposure), the greater the risk of its occurrence.
Anyone can fall ill, but some people are at an increased risk because of their lifestyle and the environmental factors (smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, are overweight or obese, eating unhealthy food, have a sedentary lifestyle, or are exposed to certain infections, radiation or chemicals cause cancer).
Some people are born with a high inherited risk of developing cancer. Although you can reduce the risk of its occurrence, there is always the risk of contracting the disease. It is important to know that it's never too early or too late to take measures relating to the prevention of its occurrence. Adopting healthy habits and avoid unhealthy food is useful at any age of life.